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U.S. Citizenship Status versus Lawful Permanent Resident Status (Green Card)

Being a United States Citizen is the highest status someone could have under U.S. immigration law. Either by birth or by naturalization (the process whereby an immigrant attains U.S. Citizenship), the status of being a U.S. Citizen affords all the protections, rights and benefits accorded under the U.S. Constitution, which includes both federal and state protections and benefits. Although being a green card holder has its benefits (such as having the right to live and work in the US), it does not compare to that of being a full-fledged U.S. Citizen. Some of the more important benefits are:

1) A Right to Live in the United States With Unrestricted Travel – Although as a green card holder, you have a right to travel in and out of the U.S., it is limited. With only a green card, you can possibly lose your legal status if you remain out of the country for over 180 days, and in the event for extended absences, you must obtain a re-entry permit. If you remain out of the country too long, you may be found to have “abandoned” your green card and therefore, be refused reentry into the United States. My law office has seen many cases where someone obtained a green card, went to Thailand and remained there for a long time, only to have great difficulty returning back to the U.S. In these cases, the U.S. government had alleged that because of the long absence out of the country, that person abandoned their legal status here in the U.S. On the other hand, if you were a U.S. Citizen, you would not have this issue. As a U.S. Citizen, you are not restricted on the amount of time you spend outside the U.S. No re-entry permit is required so you may reenter the country after a long absence, and/or if you have traveled to many different countries.

2) Non-Deportability – If you are a naturalized U.S. Citizen, you are not subject to the grounds of deportability that affect green card holders. Your citizenship status can only be stripped from you if it is found that you obtained that initial status by fraud. Therefore, a U.S. Citizen who is accused of an illegal activity generally has the right to a trial without the threat of being deported. A green card holder facing the same accusation of illegality is susceptible to deportation/removal because they remain within the authority of the USCIS and immigration courts. These illegal activities can cover a number of different reasons, including green card fraud, misrepresentation, felonious activity, etc.

3) Voting Rights & Governmental Change – A United States Citizen has a right to vote in both state and federal elections. This is an important right because it allows you to take part in shaping the system of the U.S. government and dictate possible change. This is especially true this year because it's an election year. You can voice your opinion by casting a vote for either Hillary Clinton, Donald Trump, or another candidate. Green card holders cannot vote. They cannot partake in governmental change. As a lawful permanent resident, you reside here in the U.S. given its government shaped by others, not you. (And for those of you that are already US Citizens, please go out and vote. This year's election is very important. It can shape not only our immediate future here in the United States, but others who intend to immigrate here later or for those already here who wish to adjust status later). Please do vote!

4) Petitioning for other Family Members to Immigrate – As a U.S. Citizen, you have the possibility of petitioning more family members than if you were just a green card holder. For example, U.S. Citizens over the age of 21 may petition for their parents, their married children, and their brothers and/or sisters. In addition, many of these family members qualify as “immediate relatives” and therefore there is no waiting time to petition for your relative. If you are a green card holder, you must wait a number of years before a visa number is available for your relative to immigrate to the USA; which for some has proven to be many, many years, depending on which family category your relative is in.

5) You Do Not Have to Notify USCIS When You Move – USCIS requires green card holders to notify the Department within 15 days of any change of address. Failure to advise USCIS of this change can result in the revoking of your residency right. However, as a U.S. Citizen, you are not under this requirement. As a U.S. Citizen, you no longer have to notify USCIS every time you move!

6) Government Benefits and Aid – Although green card holders can get some benefits and aid from government entities, they do not get the same or to the extent of which U.S. Citizens do. In addition, many federal programs impose a waiting period (ex. 5 years) before green card holders can start receiving some benefits. (To find out whether you meet the eligibility requirements for a public benefit, you'll need to seek information from your local public benefits office). For example, Social Security is a federal program that provides for retirement payments based on the amount of work and earnings a person achieves during their work lifetime. Whereas Supplemental Security Income (SSI) is a federal benefits program that provides cash assistance to low-income seniors and low-income disabled children and adults.

Well readers, I hope this week’s article has given you several new reasons to become a US Citizen. When you are ready to apply, please contact my office so that we can assist you in preparing for the Naturalization process. Stay tuned because in the next article, I will go over this process.

If you have questions, or need assistance, please contact my office at (818) 846-5639, or my Thai assistant at (818) 505-4921. If you have any questions that you would like to be answered in future articles, or would like to share your opinions, please email me at: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.. Also, don't forget to visit my website at: WWW.JC4LAW.COM for general information regarding Business, Immigration, Property and Family Law.

Disclaimer: The information contained herein have been prepared for informational purposes only and are not to be considered legal advice unless otherwise specified. All opinions expressed are those of the author and in no way shall be associated with Sereechai Newspaper. If you have a specific question regarding your personal case, please contact the Law Offices of Joseph Chitmongran for a full consultation.